Charcot-Leyden crystals (CLCs) are Galectin-10 protein crystals that can form after eosinophils degranule. CLCs can appear and persist in tissues from patients with eosinophilic disorders, such as asthma, allergic reactions, fungal, and helminthic infections. Despite abundant reports of their occurrence in human disease, the inflammatory potential of CLCs has remained unknown. Here we show that CLCs induce IL-1β release upon their uptake by primary human macrophages in vitro, and that they induce inflammation in vivo in mouse models of acute peritonitis and bronchitis. CLC-induced IL-1β was dependent on NLRP3 and caspase-1, and their instillation in inflammasome reporter mice promoted the assembly of ASC complexes and IL-1β secretion in the lungs. Our findings reveal that CLCs are recognized by the NLRP3 inflammasome, which may sustain inflammation that follows eosinophilic inflammatory processes.