Kinetic investigation reveals an HIV-1 Nef-dependent increase in AP-2 recruitment and productivity at endocytic sites

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Lentiviruses express non-enzymatic accessory proteins whose function is to subvert cellular machinery in the infected host. The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef hijacks clathrin adaptors to degrade or mislocalize host proteins involved in antiviral defenses. Here, we investigate the interaction between Nef and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), a major pathway for membrane protein internalization in mammalian cells, using quantitative live-cell microscopy in genome-edited Jurkat cells. Nef is recruited to CME sites on the plasma membrane, and this recruitment correlates with an increase in the recruitment and lifetime of CME coat protein AP-2 and late-arriving CME protein dynamin2. Furthermore, we find that CME sites that recruit Nef are more likely to recruit dynamin2, suggesting that Nef recruitment to CME sites promotes CME site maturation to ensure high efficiency in host protein downregulation.

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