Understanding where in the cytoplasm mRNAs are translated is increasingly recognised as being as important as knowing the timing and level of protein expression. mRNAs are localised via active motor-driven transport along microtubules (MTs) but the underlying essential factors and dynamic interactions are largely unknown. Using biochemical in vitro reconstitutions with purified mammalian proteins, multi-colour TIRF-microscopy (TIRF-M), and interaction kinetics measurements, we show that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) enables kinesin-1- and kinesin-2-based mRNA transport, and that APC is an ideal adaptor for long-range mRNA transport as it forms highly stable complexes with 3’UTR fragments of several neuronal mRNAs (APC-RNPs). The kinesin-1 KIF5A binds and transports several neuronal mRNP components such as FMRP, PURα, and mRNA fragments weakly, whereas the transport frequency of the mRNA fragments is significantly increased by APC. APC-RNP-motor complexes can assemble on MTs, generating highly processive mRNA transport events. We further find that EB1 recruits APC-RNPs to dynamically growing MT ends and APC-RNPs track shrinking MTs, producing MT minus-end-directed RNA motility due to the high dwell times of APC on MTs. Our findings establish APC as a versatile mRNA-kinesin adaptor and a key factor for the assembly and bidirectional movement of neuronal transport mRNPs.