Auditory symptoms are one of the most frequent sensory issues described in people with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of intellectual disability. However, the mechanisms that lead to these symptoms are under explored. In this study, we examined whether alterations in myelination in auditory brainstem circuitry contribute to auditory impairments in FXS mice. Specifically, we studied myelinated fibers that terminate in the Calyx of Held, which encode temporally precise sound arrival time, and are some of the most heavily myelinated axons in the brain. We measured anatomical myelination characteristics using coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and electron microscopy (EM) in a FXS mouse model in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) where the Calyx of Held synapses. We measured number of mature oligodendrocytes (OL) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to determine if changes in myelination were due to changes in the number of myelinating or immature glial cells. The two microscopy techniques (EM and CARS) showed a decrease in fiber diameter in FXS mice. Additionally, EM results indicated reductions in myelin thickness and axon diameter, and an increase in g-ratio, a measure of structural and functional myelination. Lastly, we showed an increase in both OL and OPCs in MNTB sections of FXS mice suggesting that the myelination phenotype is not due to an overall decrease in number of myelinating OLs. This is the first study to show that a potential myelination mechanism can explain alterations seen in FXS at the level of the auditory brainstem.