Applications in biotechnology and synthetic biology often make use of soluble proteins, but there are many potential advantages to anchoring enzymes to a stable substrate, including stability and the possibility for substrate channeling. To avoid the necessity of protein purification and chemical immobilization, there has been growing interest in bio-assembly of protein-containing nanoparticles, exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins or other proteins that form polyhedral structures. But these nanoparticle are limited in size which constrains the packaging and the accessibility of the proteins. The axoneme, the insoluble protein core of the eukaryotic flagellum or cilium, is a highly ordered protein structure that can be several microns in length, orders of magnitude larger than other types of nanoparticles. We show that when proteins of interest are fused to specific axonemal proteins and expressed in living cells, they become incorporated into linear arrays which have the advantages of high protein loading capacity, high stability, and single-step purification with retention of biomass. The arrays can be isolated as membrane enclosed vesicle or as exposed protein arrays. The approach is demonstrated for both fluorescent proteins and enzymes, and in the latter case it is found that incorporation into axoneme arrays provides increased stability for the enzyme.