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- Sania Siddiq
- Saima Ahmed
- Irfan Akram
This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 disease in the ethnic minorities of the UK in comparison to the White ethnic group. Medline, Embase, Cochrane, MedRxiv, and Prospero were searched for articles published between May 2020 to April 2021. PROSPERO ID: CRD42021248117. Fourteen studies (767177 participants) were included in the review. In the adjusted analysis, the pooled Odds Ratio (OR) for the mortality outcome was higher for the Black (1.83, 95% CI: 1.21-2.76), Asian (1.16, 95% CI: 0.85-1.57), and Mixed and Other (MO) groups (1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20) compared to the White group. The adjusted and unadjusted ORs of intensive care admission were more than double for all ethnicities (OR Black 2.32, 95% CI: 1.73-3.11, Asian 2.34, 95% CI: 1.89-2.90, MO group 2.26, 95% CI: 1.64-3.11). In the adjusted analysis of mechanical ventilation need the ORs were similarly significantly raised (Black group 2.03, 95% CI: 1.80-2.29, Asian group 1.84, 95% CI: 1.20-2.80, MO 2.09, 95% CI: 1.35-3.22). This review confirmed that all ethnic groups in the UK suffered from increased disease severity and mortality with regards to COVID-19. This has urgent public health and policy implications to reduce the health disparities.