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- Kasturi Chandra
- Dipshikha Chakravortty
Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has co-evolved with its host and has also developed various strategies to evade the host immune responses. Salmonella recruits an array of virulence factors to escape from host defense mechanisms. Previously chitinase A ( chiA ) was found to be upregulated in intracellular Salmonella . Although studies show that chitinases and chitin binding proteins (CBP) of many human pathogens have a profound role in various aspects of pathogenesis, like adhesion, virulence and immune evasion, the role of chitinase in strict intravacuolar pathogen Salmonella has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we deciphered the role of chitinase of Salmonella in the pathogenesis of the serovars, Typhimurium and Typhi. Our data propose that ChiA mediated modification of the glycosylation on the epithelial cell surface facilitates the invasion of the pathogen into the epithelial cells. Further we found that ChiA aids in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytes, leading to MHCII downregulation followed by suppression of antigen presentation and antibacterial responses. In continuation of the study in animal model C. elegans , Salmonella Typhi ChiA was found to facilitate attachment to the intestinal epithelium, gut colonization and persistence by downregulating antimicrobial peptides.