Information Gradient among Nucleotide Sequences of Essential RNAs from an Evolutionary Perspective

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We hypothesize that the first ancestral “protocell” molecular structures, i.e., the first RNAs and peptides that gradually transformed into real cells once the Earth had cooled sufficiently for organic molecules to appear, have left traces in the RNAs and the genes in present cells. We propose a circular RNA that could have been one of these ancestral structures whose vestigial pentameric subsequences would mark the evolution from this key moment when the protocells began to join with living organisms. In particular, we propose that, in present RNAs (ribosomal or messenger), which play an important role in the metabolism of current cells, we look for traces of the proposed primitive structure in the form of pentamers (or longer fragments) that belong to their nucleotide sequence. The result obtained can be summarized in the existence of a gradient of occurrence of such pentamers, with a high frequency for the most vital functions (protein synthesis, nucleic synthesis, cell respiration, etc.). This gradient is also visible between organisms, from the oldest (Archaea) to the most recent (Eukaryotes) in the evolution of species.

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