Super Pangenome of Grapevines Empowers Improvement of the Oldest Domesticated Fruit

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Grapevine (Vitis) is the oldest domesticated fruit crop with great cultural and economic importance. Here, we assemble and annotate haplotype-resolved genomes of 72 Vitis accessions including 25 wild and 47 cultivated grapevines, and a haplotype-resolved complete genome of V. vinifera. Coalescent phylogenomics of 142 haplotype genomes disentangles the mysterious hybridization history of grapevines, revealing enormous genetic diversity among species. Pangenome analysis together with phenotyping data reveals that European cultivars, more susceptible to the most destructive disease downy mildew (DM), had a smaller repertoire of disease resistance genes of NLR family. Through extensive structural variation (SV) characterization, phenotyping, transcriptome profiling of 113 Vitis accessions, and SV-eQTL analysis, we have identified over 79 SVs and their relevant genes significantly associated with DM resistance, exemplified by a lysine histidine transporter, VvLHT8. This haplotype-resolved complete genome and pangenome of Vitis genus will accelerate grapevine breeding and enrich our understanding of the evolution and biology of grapevines.

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