Dietary fiber induces a fat preference associated with the gut microbiota

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Eating behavior is essential to human health. However, whether future eating behavior is subjected to the conditioning of precedent dietary composition is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary fiber consumption on subsequent nutrient-specific food preferences between palatable high-fat and high-sugar diets and explore its correlation with the gut microbiota. C57BL/6NJcl male mice were subjected to a 2-week dietary intervention and fed either a control (n = 6) or inulin (n = 6) diet. Afterwards, all mice were subjected to a 3-day eating behavioral test to self-select a high-fat or a high-sugar diet. The test diet feed intakes were recorded, and the mice’s fecal samples were analyzed to evaluate the gut microbiota composition. The inulin mice exhibited a preference for a high-fat diet over a high-sugar diet, associated with distinct gut microbiota compositions profiles between the inulin and control mice. The gut microbiota Bacteroides acidifaciens (99.68%), Bacteroides caecemuris (99.37%), and Bacteroides xylanolyticus (92.28%) positively correlated with a preference for fat. Further studies involving fecal microbiota transplantation and eating behavior-related neurotransmitter analyses may clarify the role of gut microbiota on food preferences. Food preferences induced by dietary intervention are a novel observation, and the gut microbiome may be significantly associated with this preference.

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