Genome of Phyllanthus emblica : the medicinal plant Amla with super antioxidant properties

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Phyllanthus emblica or Indian gooseberry, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal horticultural plant used in traditional and modern medicines. It bears stone fruits with immense antioxidant properties due to being one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and numerous flavonoids. This study presents the first genome sequencing of this species performed using 10x Genomics and Oxford Nanopore Technology. The draft genome assembly was 519 Mbp in size and consisted of 4,384 contigs, N50 of 597 Kbp, 98.4% BUSCO score and 37,858 coding sequences. This study also reports the genome-wide phylogeny of this species with 26 other plant species that resolved the phylogenetic position of P. emblica . The presence of three ascorbate biosynthesis pathways including L-galactose, galacturonate and myo-inositol pathways was confirmed in this genome. A comprehensive comparative evolutionary genomic analysis including gene family expansion/contraction and identification of multiple signatures of adaptive evolution provided evolutionary insights into ascorbate and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways and stone fruit formation through lignin biosynthesis. The availability of this genome will be beneficial for its horticultural, medicinal, dietary, and cosmetic applications and will also help in comparative genomics analysis studies.

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