The complete sequence of a human Y chromosome

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The human Y chromosome has been notoriously difficult to sequence and assemble because of its complex repeat structure including long palindromes, tandem repeats, and segmental duplications 1–3 . As a result, more than half of the Y chromosome is missing from the GRCh38 reference sequence and it remains the last human chromosome to be finished 4, 5 . Here, the Telomere-to-Telomere (T2T) consortium presents the complete 62,460,029 base pair sequence of a human Y chromosome from the HG002 genome (T2T-Y) that corrects multiple errors in GRCh38-Y and adds over 30 million base pairs of sequence to the reference, revealing the complete ampliconic structures of TSPY , DAZ , and RBMY gene families; 41 additional protein-coding genes, mostly from the TSPY family; and an alternating pattern of human satellite 1 and 3 blocks in the heterochromatic Yq12 region. We have combined T2T-Y with a prior assembly of the CHM13 genome 4 and mapped available population variation, clinical variants, and functional genomics data to produce a complete and comprehensive reference sequence for all 24 human chromosomes.

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