Animals are under constant selective pressure from a myriad of diverse pathogens. Microsporidia are ubiquitous animal parasites, but the influence they exert on shaping animal genomes is mostly unknown. Using multiplexed competition assays, we measured the impact of four different species of microsporidia on 22 wild isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans . This resulted in the identification of 13 strains with altered resistance or sensitivity to infection. One of these identified strains, JU1400, is sensitive to an epidermal-infecting species by lacking tolerance to infection. JU1400 is also resistant to an intestinal-infecting species and can specifically recognize and destroy this pathogen. Genetic mapping of JU1400 demonstrates that these two opposing phenotypes are caused by separate alleles. Transcriptional analysis reveals that this lack of tolerance in JU1400 results in a response that shares similarity to that induced by toxins. In contrast, we do not observe JU1400 resistance being regulated at the transcriptional level. The transcriptional response to these four microsporidia species is conserved, with C. elegans strain-specific differences in potential immune genes. Together, our results show that phenotypic differences to microsporidia infection amongst C. elegans are common and that animals can evolve species-specific genetic interactions.