Developmental experiences play critical roles in shaping adult physiology and behavior. We and others previously showed that adult C. elegans which transiently experienced dauer arrest during development (PD: post-dauer) exhibit distinct gene expression profiles as compared to control adults which bypassed the dauer stage. In particular, the expression patterns of subsets of chemoreceptor genes are markedly altered in PD adults. Whether altered chemoreceptor levels drive behavioral plasticity in PD adults is unknown. Here we show that PD adults exhibit enhanced attraction to a panel of food-related attractive volatile odorants including the bacterially-produced chemical diacetyl. Diacetyl-evoked responses in the AWA olfactory neuron pair are increased in both dauer larvae and PD adults, and we find that these increased responses are correlated with upregulation of the diacetyl receptor ODR-10 in AWA likely via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. We show that transcriptional upregulation of odr-10 expression in dauer larvae is in part mediated by the DAF-16 FOXO transcription factor. Via transcriptional profiling of sorted populations of AWA neurons from control and PD adults, we further show that the expression of a subset of additional chemoreceptor genes in AWA is regulated similarly to odr-10 in PD animals. Our results suggest that developmental experiences may be encoded at the level of olfactory receptor regulation, and provide a simple mechanism by which C. elegans is able to precisely modulate its behavioral preferences as a function of its current and past experiences.