We describe the Queensland Twin Adolescent Brain (QTAB) dataset and provide a detailed methodology and technical validation to facilitate data usage. The QTAB dataset comprises multimodal neuroimaging, as well as cognitive and mental health data collected in adolescent twins over two sessions (session 1: N = 422, age 9-14 years; session 2: N = 304, 10-16 years). The MRI protocol consisted of T1-weighted (MP2RAGE), T2-weighted, FLAIR, high-resolution TSE, SWI, resting-state fMRI, DWI, and ASL scans. Two fMRI tasks were added in session 2: an emotional conflict task and a passive movie-watching task. Outside of the scanner, we assessed cognitive function using standardised tests. We also obtained self-reports of symptoms for anxiety and depression, perceived stress, sleepiness, pubertal development measures, and risk and protective factors. We additionally collected several biological samples for genomic and metagenomic analysis. The QTAB project was established to promote health-related research in adolescence.