Reproduction alters animal behavior and physiology, but neuronal circuits that coordinate these changes remain largely unknown. Insights into mechanisms that regulate and possibly coordinate reproduction-related traits could be gleaned from the study of sex pheromones that manipulate potential mating partners to improve reproductive success. In C. elegans , the prominent male pheromone, ascr#10, modifies reproductive behavior and several aspects of reproductive physiology in hermaphrodite recipients, including improving oocyte quality. Here we show that a circuit that contains serotonin-producing and serotonin-uptaking neurons plays a key role in mediating these beneficial effects of ascr#10. We also demonstrate that increased serotonergic signaling promotes proliferation of germline progenitors in adult hermaphrodites. Our results establish a role for serotonin in maintaining germline quality and highlight a simple neuronal circuit that acts as a linchpin that couples food intake, mating behavior, reproductive output, and germline renewal and provisioning.