Uncovering organizing principles of organelle assembly is a fundamental pursuit in the life sciences. C. elegans was key in identifying evolutionary conserved components governing assembly of the centriole organelle. However, localizing these components with high precision has been hampered by the minute size of the worm centriole, thus impeding understanding of underlying assembly mechanisms. Here, we used Ultrastructure Expansion coupled with STimulated Emission Depletion microscopy (U-Ex-STED), as well as electron microscopy (EM) and tomography (ET), to decipher the molecular architecture of the worm centriole. Achieving an effective lateral resolution of ∼14 nm, we localize centriolar and PeriCentriolar Material (PCM) components in a comprehensive manner with utmost spatial precision. We uncovered that the procentriole assembles from a location on the centriole margin characterized by SPD-2 and ZYG-1 accumulation. Moreover, we found that SAS-6 and SAS-5 are present in the nascent procentriole, with SAS-4 and microtubules recruited thereafter. We registered U-Ex-STED and EM data using the radial array of microtubules, thus allowing us to map each centriolar and PCM protein to a specific ultrastructural compartment. Importantly, we discovered that SAS-6 and SAS-4 exhibit a radial symmetry that is offset relative to microtubules, leading to a chiral centriole ensemble. Furthermore, we establish that the centriole is surrounded by a region from which ribosomes are excluded and to which SAS-7 localizes. Overall, our work uncovers the molecular architecture of the C. elegans centriole in unprecedented detail and establishes a comprehensive framework for understanding mechanisms of organelle biogenesis and function.