Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are bioactive lipid-bilayer enclosed particles released from nearly all cells. One specialized site for EV shedding is the primary cilium, a conserved signaling organelle. The mechanisms underlying cargo enrichment and biogenesis of heterogeneous EVs shed from cilia are unclear. Here we discover the conserved ion channel CLHM-1 as a new ciliary EV cargo. Using super-resolution microscopy, we imaged EVs released into the environment from sensory neuron cilia of C. elegans expressing fluorescently-tagged CLHM-1 and TRP polycystin-2 channel PKD-2 EV cargoes at endogenous levels. We find that these proteins are enriched in distinct EV subpopulations that are differentially shed in response to availability of hermaphrodite mating partners. Both CLHM-1 and PKD-2 localize to the ciliary base and middle segment of the cilium proper, but PKD-2 alone is present in the cilium distal tip and EVs shed from this site. CLHM-1 EVs released into the environment bud from a secondary site, the periciliary membrane compartment at the ciliary base. We show that individual heterotrimeric and homomeric kinesin-II motors have discrete impacts on the colocalization of PKD-2 and CLHM-1 in both cilia and EVs. Total loss of kinesin-II activity significantly decreases shedding of PKD-2 but not CLHM-1 EVs. Our data demonstrate that anterograde kinesin-II-dependent intraflagellar transport is required for selective enrichment of specific protein cargoes into heterogeneous EVs with different signaling potentials.