In Vitro Inactivation of Human Coronavirus by Titania Nanoparticle Coatings and UVC Radiation: Throwing Light on SARS-CoV-2

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The newly identified pathogenic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, led to an atypical pneumonia-like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak called co rona vi rus d isease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, nearly 23 million cases have been confirmed worldwide with the highest COVID-19 cases been confirmed in the United States. As there is no vaccine or any effective interventions, massive efforts to create a postential vaccine to combat COVID-19 is underway. In the meantime, safety precautions and effective disease control strategies appear to be vital for preventing the virus spread in the public places. Due to the longevity of the virus on smooth surfaces, photocatalytic properties of self-disinfecting/cleaning surfaces appear to be a promising tool to help guide disinfection policies to control infectious SAR-CoV-2 spread in high-traffic areas such as hospitals, grocery stores, airports, schools, and stadiums. Here, we explored the photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO 2 (TNPs) as induced by the UV radiation, towards virus deactivation. Our preliminary results using close genetic relative of SAR-CoV-2, HCoV-NL63, showed the virucidal efficacy of photoactive TNPs deposited on glass coverslips, as examined by quantitative RT-PCR and virus culture assays. Efforts to extrapolate the underlying concepts described in this study to SARS-CoV-2 are currently underway.

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  1. SciScore for 10.1101/2020.08.25.265223: (What is this?)

    Please note, not all rigor criteria are appropriate for all manuscripts.

    Table 1: Rigor

    Institutional Review Board Statementnot detected.
    Randomizationnot detected.
    Blindingnot detected.
    Power Analysisnot detected.
    Sex as a biological variablenot detected.
    Cell Line Authenticationnot detected.

    Table 2: Resources

    Cell monolayers were washed again (3x) and incubated with rabbit anti-CoV antibody (1:200; BEI Resources, NIAID, NIH) for 1h at RT, followed by incubation with goat anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor 488 (1:5000; Molecular Probe, Carlsbad, CA), secondary antibody for 1h at RT in the dark.
    suggested: None
    suggested: None
    Experimental Models: Cell Lines
    2.1. Cells: Vero E6 and HEK293L cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Atlanta Biologicals), 2 mM L-glutamine, 25 U/mL penicillin, and 25 μg/mL streptomycin.
    Vero E6
    suggested: RRID:CVCL_XD71)
    HCoV-NL63 was obtained from BEI Resources (1.6×106 TCID50/ml; lot 70033870, NIAID, NIH) and propagated in Vero cells by infecting the Vero cell monolayer with HCoV-NL63 for 2 h.
    suggested: RRID:CVCL_RW88)
    suggested: None
    Virus from the TNP coated surfaces were recovered and used for total RNA extraction or applied onto a permissive, human embryonic kidney (HEK293L) cell monolayer for the detection of infectious virus.
    suggested: NIH-ARP Cat# 3553-138, RRID:CVCL_M775)
    Software and Algorithms
    Statistical analyses were performed using Prism 8.0 software (Graphpad Inc.) and the p-values were calculated using 2-way ANOVA and the p-values are *, <0.1; and ** <0.01.
    suggested: (PRISM, RRID:SCR_005375)
    suggested: (GraphPad, RRID:SCR_000306)

    Results from OddPub: We did not detect open data. We also did not detect open code. Researchers are encouraged to share open data when possible (see Nature blog).

    Results from LimitationRecognizer: An explicit section about the limitations of the techniques employed in this study was not found. We encourage authors to address study limitations.

    Results from TrialIdentifier: No clinical trial numbers were referenced.

    Results from Barzooka: We found bar graphs of continuous data. We recommend replacing bar graphs with more informative graphics, as many different datasets can lead to the same bar graph. The actual data may suggest different conclusions from the summary statistics. For more information, please see Weissgerber et al (2015).

    Results from JetFighter: We did not find any issues relating to colormaps.

    Results from rtransparent:
    • Thank you for including a conflict of interest statement. Authors are encouraged to include this statement when submitting to a journal.
    • No funding statement was detected.
    • No protocol registration statement was detected.

    About SciScore

    SciScore is an automated tool that is designed to assist expert reviewers by finding and presenting formulaic information scattered throughout a paper in a standard, easy to digest format. SciScore checks for the presence and correctness of RRIDs (research resource identifiers), and for rigor criteria such as sex and investigator blinding. For details on the theoretical underpinning of rigor criteria and the tools shown here, including references cited, please follow this link.