Building programmable multicompartment artificial cells incorporating remotely activated protein channels using microfluidics and acoustic levitation

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Intracellular compartments are functional units that support the metabolism within living cells, through spatiotemporal regulation of chemical reactions and biological processes. Consequently, as a step forward in the bottom-up creation of artificial cells, building analogous intracellular architectures is essential for the expansion of cell-mimicking functionality. Herein, we report the development of a droplet laboratory platform to engineer complex emulsion-based, multicompartment artificial cells, using microfluidics and acoustic levitation. Such levitated models provide free-standing, dynamic, definable droplet networks for the compartmentalisation of chemical species. Equally, they can be remotely operated with pneumatic, heating, and magnetic elements for post-processing, including the incorporation of membrane proteins; alpha-hemolysin; and mechanosensitive channel of large-conductance. The assembly of droplet networks is three-dimensionally patterned with fluidic input configurations determining droplet contents and connectivity, whilst acoustic manipulation can be harnessed to reconfigure the droplet network in situ. The mechanosensitive channel can be repeatedly activated and deactivated in the levitated artificial cell by the application of acoustic and magnetic fields to modulate membrane tension on demand. This offers possibilities beyond one-time chemically mediated activation to provide repeated, non-contact, control of membrane protein function. Collectively, this expands our growing capability to program and operate increasingly sophisticated artificial cells as life-like materials.

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